کتاب پایه های اتیولوژی (کردار شناسی) – کنراد لرنز – دانلود رایگان

کتاب پایه های اتیولوژی (کردار شناسی) – کنراد لرنز

foundations of ethology

by Konrad Z. Lorenz

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فهرست مطالب کتاب پایه های اتیولوژی (کردار شناسی) – کنراد لرنز

 

Introductory History

Thinking in Biological Terms

The Methodology of Biology and Particularly

The Non Obtrusive Experiment

The Deprivation Experiment

The Relatively Entirety Independent Component

The Fallacies of Non System Oriented Methods

Explanatory Monism

Integrating Effect of the Instinct Hierarchy

Interaction between Motor Patterns

Motor Patterns Not Specific to the System

Chapter Summary

Mechanisms Exploiting Instant Information

The Regulating Cycle or Homeostasis

Excitability

Kinesis

Operationalism and Explanatory Monism of the Behaviorist School

The Comparative Method

Criteria of Taxa

The Hypothesis of Growth

Homology and Its Criteria

The Number of Characteristics as a Criterion of Homology

Convergent Adaptation

Analogy as a Source of Knowledge

Homoiology

The Changing Value of Single Characteristics

The Difficulties and the Importance of Microsystematics

The Origin of Ethology

Chapter Summary

Part Two Genetically Programmed Behavior

The Centrally Coordinated Movement or Fixed Motor Pattern

Differences in Intensity

Qualitatively Identical Excitation Activating Different Motor Patterns

Unity of Motivation

The Method of Dual Quantification

Action Specific Fatigue

Threshold Lowering of Releasing Stimuli

Effects Obscuring the Accumulation of Action Specific Excitability

Vacuum Activity

Appetitive Behavior

Threshold Lowering and Appetitive Behavior in Avoidance

Driving and Being Driven

Neurophysiology of Spontaneity

Analogies of Function in Neural Elements and Integrated Systems

Chapter Summary

Afferent Processes

Limits to the Functions of IRMs

IRM and the Releaser

An Important Rule of Thumb

IRMs Rendered More Selective by Learning

The Problem of the Stimulus

Analogous Phenomena in Integrated Neural Systems

ActionSpecific Potential ASP

The Behavior Mechanisms Already Described Built into Complex Systems

Searching Automatism

Hierarchical Systems

The Relative Hierarchy of Moods

The Locus of Superior Command Obergeordnete Kommandostelle

How Unitary Is An Instinct?

The Multiplicity of Motivations

Topical Response or Taxis

Telotaxis or Fixating

Temporal Orientation

Navigation by Sextant and Chronometer

Taxis and the Fixed Motor Pattern

Taxis and Insight

Multiple Motivation in Behavior

Superposition

Mutual Inhibition and Alternation

Displacement Activities

Part Three Adaptive Modification of Behavior

Modification

Analogous Processes in Embryogenesis

Learning as an Adaptive Modification

Learning Without Association

Habituation or Stimulus Adaptation

Learning Through Association Without Feedback Reporting Success

Habituation Linked with Association

Becoming Accustomed or Habit Formation

The Conditioned Reflex Proper or Conditioning with Stimulus Selection

Avoidance Responses Acquired Through Trauma

Imprinting

Conditioned Inhibition

Chapter Summary

Learning Effected by the Consequences of Behavior

Minimum Complication of the System

Conditioned Appetitive Behavior

Conditioned Aversion

Conditioned Action

Conditioned Appetitive Behavior Directed at Quiescence

Operant Conditioning In the Sense Here Advocated

Chapter Summary

Motor Learning Voluntary Movement and Insight

So Called Voluntary Movement

Voluntary Movement and Insight

Exploratory Behavior or Curiosity

The Autonomous Motivation of Exploratory Behavior

Latent Knowledge

Objectivity

Play

Curiosity Play Research and Art

Afterword to Part Three

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